Radcot Road – one of the roads that made Faringdon the important five-way road junction of the past. It was once an important trade route between the Saxon kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia (later from Berkshire into Oxfordshire) at the old border on the River Thames at Radcot Bridge. It gave access to the stone quarries near Burford and to the wool merchants of Witney; as well as routes to the north of England. Rocote or Rodecot (Radcot) meaning “cottage by the road” is mentioned in the 1086 Domesday Book as a two family unit with 24 acres of farmland, owned by King William (the Norman conqueror) and managed by Alsi de Ferendone. Alsige or Aelfsige, as the name was normally written, was a favoured and very wealthy Saxon with other holdings that he was allowed to keep at Great Barrington and Windrush in valuable Cotswold wool country and he also had or gained many other properties elsewhere.
See Faringdon Streets for an indexed list of all streets in Faringdon.
Views of Radcot Road
Looking down Radcot Road from Church Street, deep into the valley of the River Thames. The Cotswold Hills can be seen on the horizon across the other side of the valley. The statue in the grounds of Faringdon House can be seen overlooking the road in the second photo (more below). The original road used to run straight up Church Street from the Market Place through the current entrance to Faringdon House beside the church, passing close to house. In 1780, when having the house rebuilt, the Lord of the Manor, Henry James Pye, had the road diverted by an Act of Parliament to its current position further up Church Street. Coming back up the hill there is a sharp left bend at the bottom where the road veers off from the old course that went straight up through the grounds towards the house and church.
The statue in the grounds of Faringdon House that can be seen overlooking the road on the left was purchased from the old Houses of Parliament which had five of them to sell. This was before the medieval royal palace used as the home of the British parliament, was largely destroyed by fire on 16 October 1834. Each of the statues is said to have depicted one of the five continents, this one being Africa. It’s current position provides an excellent view over the Thames Valley and concealed under the statue is a World War II pillbox. It had spy-holes to observe an enemy approaching and would have been defended with Bren guns and anti-tank guns.
This photo was taken in 1982 from a little down the road and turning around looking back up the hill into Faringdon. When you arrive from travelling across the relatively flat valley of the River Thames there is quite a steep climb up the Radcot Road in order to enter the town. Church Street runs across the top of the hill. The large house at the end on the far left is Bleak House, which was originally the coach house and stable for the adjacent house called The Grove. The field on the left of the road extends down into the valley with views across more wide open fields as far as the eye can see.
After passing the cross-road to Pidnell Farm and Pidnell Cottages, when travelling from Faringdon, first there are two low stone bridges over small brooks then three large ones which span the River Thames. The early 13th century Radcot Bridge (Grade II Listed) is the first large bridge of the three that you come to.
Pottery finds suggest a substantial Romano-British presence at Radcot, but the settlement was apparently abandoned in the post-Roman period until reoccupation in the mid 11th century. Back in the days of the Saxons (410 to 1066) the River Temes formed the border between the kingdoms of Wessex in the south and Mercia to the north, so there may well have been a bridge or bridges at this site during that time. The river in this area was much smaller than it is today, even more prone to seasonal flooding and surrounded by swamp in many places until a system of proper locks was created during the 18th century to improve navigation. It is thought possible that Radcot may be the site of the stone bridge mentioned in a grant of land made by King Eadwig to the Thegn (Lord) Eadric in 958. The Saxons were not well-known for building in stone so it, or at least its foundations, with repairs probably made using wood, may well have been there since Roman times. The earliest definite recorded evidence of a bridge and causeway crossing the River Thames at Radcot appears in the 1086 Domesday Book. Aelfsige of Faringdon had created an embanked causeway across the floodplain, most likely linked by timber bridges across the river’s various branches and side channels. Later, the Cistercian monks of St Mary at Cîteaux in Normandy were granted land by King John for the purpose of building a stone bridge across the river, which was completed in 1225 and therefore it is said to be the oldest existing bridge on the river; parts of it still exist today. The stone that was used came from Taynton near Burford and was considered to be amongst the finest available. At that time, the river marked the border between the counties of Berkshire and Oxfordshire (before the changes in 1974) and Radcot Bridge would have been an important crossing point, especially as it was the only major crossing all the way up-river from Oxford.
(A little later, in about 1229, a multiple arched stone bridge was also erected 4 miles to the west by the priory of St. John the Baptist, just beyond where the Thames is joined upriver by the River Cole and the River Leach at Lechlade in Gloucestershire. It wasn’t until around the 15th Century, when a new bridge, called Newbridge, was built 8 miles to the east where the Thames is joined by the Windrush. It was built identical in design but larger than Radcot Bridge. Tadpole Bridge, a single arch stone bridge built in between at Buckland Marsh and where there was once a wharf and a weir, dates from the late 18th century. All these bridges have needed repairs or reconstruction over the subsequent years.)
Radcot Bridge had to be reconstructed in 1393 following its partial destruction in 1387 during a battle fought and won against troops loyal to the young, wildly extravagant and increasingly unpopular Richard II. The bridge was again severely damaged during the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485) and the central arch was later rebuilt as it appears today.
Extract from a childhood memoir of the 1930s in Faringdon: “In summer the river was the big attraction, every one learnt to swim down the “shallows” To get to these you turned left at Radcot Bridge went through a small gate walk a long the tow path for a little way, then cut across country which cut off a bend in the river and that brought you to the shallows. The River Thames was only 2½ miles away and we often walked there and stayed all day paddling about in what we called the ‘shallows’ where the river overflowed onto the low flat ground. The walk there was soon covered by leaping ditches and playing chase but the return journey when we were tired, hot and foot weary seemed more like six miles. My brother, who could not swim, used to jump from Radcot Bridge into the fast flowing main part of the river.” More memoires…
The road continues across a narrow island to a second channel of the river, which was once crossed by a stone bridge, described by Thomas Baskerville in 1692 as having two arches. The bridge later fell into disrepair and was replaced with wood. In 1770 the road, previously maintained by the parish was taken over and vastly improved by a turnpike company. During the 1780s, the Thames was connected to the Severn by a canal and trade with Wales, especially coal, was booming. So in 1787 this channel or canal was widened to become the main route for navigation, a new stone bridge with one wide arch was built, and a toll was charged to cross all three bridges.
The first photo was taken looking upstream from the garden of the Swan Hotel during the floods in December 1992. The second photo was taken in 2020 looking back at the Swan from the traffic light shown in the first photo. Off to the left of the first photo, is an old World War II pillbox now surrounded by a car park and converted to a cafe and camp-site office, possibly the only one still in use today. The National Trails Thames Path crosses the river at this bridge, going upstream from the south bank on the left to the north bank on the right.
A closer look at the bridge shows the evidence of many repairs that have been required in previous years. The problem continues even more frequently today as lorries get longer and heavier, and ignore signage of the alternative route via Lechlade. The road turning sharply right immediately after the bridge due to its diversion around old Radcot (see below) only exacerbates the problem. Since around the 1990s road traffic over the two bridges has been controlled by traffic lights.
The Swan Hotel
The postcard above shows a scene looking down river from the Canal Bridge. The Swan Hotel is on the left with a variety of boats on the bank and what looks like a large boathouse beyond; and the entrance to the channel that leads to Pidnell Bridge and the old Radcot Wharf. A tavern is known to have been here since at least 1692 and the frontage was rebuilt in 1873. During the early 1900s it became a popular centre for swimming and boating with an annual regatta and swimming races. According to the advert in the Faringdon Advertiser from 1931, five Bristol buses pass the door of the Swan Hotel daily – sadly there are no buses and no boats for hire today.
A little further on past the pub is a third large stone bridge over yet another channel of the river, called the Pidnell Bridge Arm. Back in the days of turnpike roads, 1771-1878, there was a toll gate shed on this bridge, about where that old shed can be seen to the right of the bridge today.
Pidnell Bridge was probably first built when the previously straight road was diverted slightly around to the east of Radcot due to a castle being built on its path in the early 12th century and hence a third and probably wooden bridge was required for the new road to cross a third branch of the river at this point. It was soon rebuilt along with the other bridges using stone. Pidnell bridge, described by Thomas Baskerville in 1692 as having had four rather small stone arches, was then owned by the lord of the manor, who demolished and rebuilt it in 1863 using iron and brick, later faced with stone. The bridge gets its name from Pidnell, a small hamlet of a few cottages and a farm about three quarters of a mile away on the other side of the river, back towards Faringdon.
Now disused for navigation, the third channel was once used for access to a wharf where produce such as wool, salt, fish, grain and building materials were loaded onto barges. Such activities had been going on since the early Middle Ages, before the castle was built and continued well into the17th century. In particular the finest Taynton or Burford stone that was intended for the elegant buildings planned for Oxford and London (such as St Paul’s Cathedral) and even Paris was loaded here. The wharf was on the left just before the bridge and remains as the flooded wooded area seen today.
Radcot Castle & Village
Crossing over Pidnell Bridge, the road then passes a field on the left where once stood the early 12th century wooden castle and moat. The castle was built for and held in 1142 by Matilda’s supporters during The Anarchy (1139–1154), the civil war with Stephen, and demolished in the late 13th century. There was also an 11th century chapel built by Aelfsige of Faringdon that was demolished in the17th century, possibly when the Civil War (1642-1651) fortifications were set up on the site. Further on the road passes the 17th-century Radcot House and grounds on its way to the village of Clanfield. The original hamlet of Radcot, containing 35 houses in 1086 has otherwise slowly disappeared.
Once a practically straight road from Faringdon Market Place to Burford High Street, this road now labelled the A4095 has been altered by three bypasses during its history. One around Faringdon House in the late 18th century, Radcot in the early 12th century, and more recently a wide diversion at Black Bourton via Alvescot to skirt around RAF Brize Norton, when the building of the airfield started in 1935.
PASE Domesday – domesday.pase.ac.uk/Domesday?op=5&personkey=48364
British History Online – Langford Parish: Radcot – www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/oxon/vol17/pp250-269
Radcot Bridge and Newbridge. By M. R. Toynbee – www.oxoniensia.org/volumes/1949/toynbee.pdf
Radcot and its Bridge. By E.A.Pocock, 1966 – www.angelfire.com/ok4/clanf/radcot.htm
Researched by Ian Lee, May 2020.